Scientific and cultural perspectives on human diversity, including concepts of “race” and ancestry, have shifted dramatically over the centuries. In recent decades, studies of genetic variation at individual and population levels have provided valuable insights for the health sciences. Human genomics, particularly the relationships between genes and expressed outcomes, shapes current and developing approaches in precision medicine. However, human diversity is not a matter of genes alone. It also encompasses a spectrum of cultural and theological concepts of identity, as well as individuals’ lived experiences, that interact in complex and sometimes surprising ways – with profound impacts on health and well-being.